Paul Miliukov (1859-1943) was the leading organizer and ideologist of Russian liberalism from before the 1905 Revolution until his withdrawal from active politics after the Russian Revolutions of 1917 and the Civil War.
He was a founder of the Constitutional Democratic Party and represented it in the Third and Fourth State Dumas. During the Great War he most boldly asserted the program of the Progressive Bloc within the Duma, particularly in the last months of the old regime.
The February Revolution elevated him briefly to the position of Foreign Minister in the Provisional Government in the spring of 1917. After the October 1917 Soviet Revolution he was an active participant in the “white” movement against the Bolsheviks.