Otto Liman von Sanders was born in 1855. He served in staff and divisional commands before becoming head of the German military mission to Turkey in 1913. Despite Russian protests, Sanders became Inspector General of the Turkish Army in January, 1914.
Sanders became commander of the Turkish First Army but in March 1915, was replaced by Baron von der Goltz. Sanders was now sent to the Dardanelles with the Fifth Army and was credited with masterminding the Allied defeat at Gallipoli.
In February, 1918, Sanders took command of the Turkish-German Army on the Palestine Front but was defeated by General Edmund Allenby and his much larger army. After the Armistice Sanders was arrested by the British as a war criminal but was released in August 1919. Otto Liman von Sanders died in 1929.