Enver Pasha

Enver Pasha was born in Apana in 1881. Commissioned in the Turkish Army and received some of his training with the German Army. While serving in the Salonika garrison he developed ideas on how the Ottoman Empire could be modernized. In 1908 Pasha was one of the three main leaders of the Young Turks that rebelled against the rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid.

Pasha considered forming a military alliance with Britain but after a meeting with Winston Churchill in 1910 he decided to see the military support of the German Army. By 1914 Turkey had clearly aligned itself with the Central Powers.

On the outbreak of the First World War Pasha became Minister of War and assumed field command for the Turkish campaign against the Russians in Caucasia. When Turkey was defeated in 1918 Pasha fled to Turkestan. Enver Pasha was killed in 1922 while leading an anti-Bolshevik revolt in Turkestan.